Libmonster ID: BY-2142
Author(s) of the publication: A. A. SHEVYAKOV

At the end of this year, the Romanian public celebrates two dates from the history of the Romanian labor movement: 75 years of the creation of the Social Democratic Party of Workers of Romania (SDPRR) and 50 years of the general political strike in Bucharest. In the second half of the last century, a new social force entered the political arena of Romania - the working class. With its appearance, the workers ' press began to form in the country, and the socialist movement began to develop. An important milestone in this

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The goal was to create the SDPRR , the first political party of the Romanian proletarians. The foundation of this party was laid by the Founding Congress, which was held in late March - early April 1893. However, the party was weak organizationally. In its charter it was written that all those who are members of workers ' clubs or any other working groups and recognize its program can be members of the party. Such organizational amorphousness had a detrimental effect on the future fate of the SDPRR and led to its liquidation: at the Sixth Party Congress (1899), at the suggestion of opportunist elements called "magnanimous", the Social Democratic Party was transformed into a national democratic party, and a number of opportunists moved to the national liberal camp.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, a small group of workers-revolutionaries, led by I. C. Frimu, S. Gheorghiu and others, arose among the Romanian working class and boldly raised their voices in protest against the betrayal of the opportunists and called for the unification of the proletarian masses in Romania. The development of the Romanian revolutionary movement and its international relations was greatly influenced by the 1905 - 1907 revolution in Russia. I. K. Frimu, speaking at a workers ' rally in Bucharest, warmly welcomed the Russian revolution. "It is our duty,"he said," to draw conclusions from what is happening in Russia and to organize the workers. " 1 In 1910, the Restoration Congress of the SDPRR was held. During the First World War and later, the Romanian socialists led by M. G. Bujor, I. K. Frimu, A. Constantinescu and others, although they made some mistakes, generally opposed the imperialist policy of the Romanian bourgeoisie, against the Austro-German occupation. In this struggle, the Romanian Socialists made extensive use of strikes, meetings, and street demonstrations. The Great October Socialist Revolution found a deep response among the Romanian people. The Romanian socialists, who issued an appeal to the workers, pointed out that "a new era in the history of mankind is now beginning." The Soviet government's decrees on peace and land, as well as the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, made a great impression in Romanian towns and villages. Even Rumanian bourgeois circles noted that the socialist revolution in Russia has a strong impact on the peoples of Europe: "In some nations, it has caused a determined desire for national development, and in others - a tendency to social liberation. In both cases, its influence is boundless, and it gives a powerful impulse to the forces of nations. " 2

The best representatives of the Romanian working class, loyal to the ideas of the Great October Revolution, took an active part in defending the young Soviet state during the civil war and foreign military intervention in Soviet Russia. At the head of those Romanians who fought in the name of the ideas of Soviet power were the leaders of the revolutionary struggle in Romania, M. G. Bujor, A. Nicolau, A. Zalik, T. Diamandescu and others. In turn, the Bolshevik Party and the Soviet Government closely followed the situation in Romania, the development of the revolutionary struggle there, and the movement to end the imperialist war. M. M. Volodarsky declared to the representatives of revolutionary Romania: "Romania is the closest country to us geographically; we are aware of the peaceful efforts of the Romanian social-democracy, and we assure it of our support in the struggle for the liberation of the Romanian people." 3 The heroic example of the Russian working class increasingly captured the minds of the oppressed strata of the Romanian people. To fight for a better future of the country, all the advanced forces rose up both in the German-occupied and Austrian-occupied parts of the country. Despite the state of siege in Moldova and the occupation regime in the southern and western regions of the country, the strike movement of the working class was expanding every day. In December 1917, and three times during the spring and summer of 1918, railway workers went on strike, calling on workers to speak "Russian" to their government. In the summer of 1918, a powerful strike was organized by the oil workers of Prakhov; other industrial centers were also involved in strikes.

Bessarabia, treacherously captured from Soviet Russia by the Romanian military in early 1918, was particularly troubled. With the introduction of the occupation forces, the Romanian government suspended the Soviet "Land Decree", preventing the division of landlords ' lands, and annulled the revolutionary gains of the Bessarabian workers. This caused a powerful wave of hatred towards the Romanian occupiers among the broad masses of Bessarabia. In many villages of the occupied territory, Moldavian and Ukrainian peasants continued to take land and property from large landlords. In the first half of 1918, anti-Romanian demonstrations took place in the town of Reni, in the villages of Kishinev and Soroka counties, and in other places in Bessarabia. In a number of Bessarabian villages, Soviets continued to exist illegally, 4 despite threats from the Romanian occupiers to shoot every tenth Moldovan .5 Meanwhile, the revolutionary uprisings of the masses of the people were striking blows at

1 "Jos despotismul", 27.I.1905.

2 "Telegraful roman", 24.X.1918.

3 "Lupta", 17.XII.1917.

4 Arhiva CC al PCR, f. 5, dos. 763.

5 Dezbaterile adunarii deputation 1917 - 1918, sedinfa 23.VI.1918, p. 223.

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to the ruling classes of Romania. More and more boldly, the workers declared their readiness to establish a new order in the country. These sentiments also spread to the army, where it came to armed uprisings. At the beginning of 1918, uprisings of military sailors broke out on Romanian ships stationed on the Danube and the Black Sea, then on ships evacuated from the Austro-German invaders to Russian ports, then soldiers of the 10th and 15th Romanian artillery regiments stationed in Odessa and Novorossiysk rose in revolt. Indignation then engulfed the soldiers of the 1st and 2nd artillery regiments and the 34th infantry Regiment 6 . In the article "A difficult but necessary lesson" V. I. Lenin wrote:: "The fire of the proletarian uprising broke out in Finland. The fire spread to Romania. " 7

At the end of 1918, a new powerful wave of the strike movement, organized by the revolutionary part of the Socialist Party, swept through Romania. . At meetings and demonstrations of workers, their leaders came up with a broad program of action. Along with economic ones, they put forward a number of political demands: official recognition of trade unions and democratic workers 'organizations, workers' councils, the granting of democratic freedoms, and the establishment of a republic. By these actions, the revolutionary forces of Roumania challenged the bourgeois-landlord system, the reactionary ruling circles, and the monarchy. One of the bourgeois leaders who repeatedly headed the royal government of Romania, A. Marghiloman, wrote in his diary on December 10, 1918, that the government official General Averescu, when he came to the palace, found the King "very agitated by the morning incident." The latter, driving through the city in a car, found himself in the midst of a procession of workers. They did not think it necessary to bare their heads to the king and began to shout: "Long live the Republic!" The workers responded to the guards ' demand to let the king pass: "Let His Majesty the working class pass first." And two days later, the same Margiloman noted: "A violent demonstration is taking place. At noon, I met a demonstration with placards and red banners on Kala Victoria. Shouts rang out: "Long live the Russian Revolution!" The demonstrators also shouted "hurrah" 9 .

The culmination of the march of the Romanian revolutionary forces in 1918 was the December general strike and demonstration of the workers of Bucharest. On December 1, the national bourgeois-landlord rulers returned to Bucharest to replace the occupiers. Frightened by the bold actions of the workers and peasants, and not having sufficient military strength in the capital, the king and the government generously distributed various promises to the workers (increasing wages, improving the supply of food to the population, solving the agrarian question, etc.), but they were in no hurry to fulfill them. Then the workers of the capital decided to start a general strike on December 13 and hold a demonstration on the streets of the city. On this December day, about 50 thousand demonstrators took to the streets and squares with the slogans " Down with the bourgeoisie!", "Down with the king!", "Long live the Socialist Republic!", "Long live international communism!" 10 . The government headed by the leader of the National Liberal Party, Bratianu, brutally cracked down on the Romanian proletariat. Troops, police and gendarmerie were drawn into the city. The reaction chose Teatralnaya Square as the place of the massacre. Here, the authorities have scheduled negotiations with representatives of the workers. When unarmed demonstrators gathered in the Square and near the Socialist Party premises, the troops opened fire on them on the King's orders. Dozens of dead and wounded were victims of treachery. Hundreds of demonstrators were then arrested. I. K. Frima, an ardent fighter of the Romanian labor movement, was captured and put behind bars. Two months later, he died from torture in the dungeons of Siguranta. Participants in the strikes and demonstrations were tried by military courts.

A wave of terror also swept through other cities in Romania. Practically, the government has imposed a military regime everywhere. Many enterprises were placed under martial law, and their workers were considered militarily mobile. The Socialist Workers ' press was banned, and the advanced workers were persecuted and harassed. The bourgeois press declared the December 13 demonstration "the machinations of the Russian Bolsheviks." 11 The reaction was triumphant. She praised the executioners of the people and congratulated the punitive authorities on their Victory. The defeat of the December action did not break the will of the Romanian proletariat. The Romanian rulers in the following years did not

6 Arhiva CC al PCR, f. 5, dos. 750.

7 V. I. Lenin. PSS. Vol. 35, p. 393.

8 From the beginning of December 1918, this party became known as the Socialist Party, thus emphasizing the break with the old, reformist policy. The social-democratic organizations of Transylvania and Bukovina, which were annexed to Romania and were dominated by opportunist elements, did not want to join the Socialist Party.

9 A. Marghiloman. Note politice. Vol. IV. Bucuresti. 1927, p. 185.

10 "Marea Revolufie socialists din Octombne si Romania. Culege de studii". Bucuresti. 1967, p. 94; V. Cancikov. Jurnal. Vol. II. Bucuresti. 1921, p. 717.

11 "Viitorul", 15.XII.1918.

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On several occasions, the Romanian working class and peasantry suffered the brunt of the revolutionary uprisings. Thus, in 1919 the country was gripped by more than 300 strikes and dozens of peasant unrest; in 1920, more than 300 thousand workers participated in strikes and strikes .12 A significant part of the Roumanian proletariat's actions took place in defense of Soviet Russia, against Roumanian and international imperialism, and against its intention to stifle the world's first socialist state of workers and peasants. This performance by the Romanian workers of their international duty is one of the most glorious pages in the history of the Romanian working class.

12 "Greva generala din 1920". Bucuresti. 1960, pp. 101 - 102.


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