Libmonster ID: BY-1570
Author(s) of the publication: M. Khalizeva


Academician Nikolai Khlopkin:

"Anatoly Alexandrov trained reactor designers for detailed and permanent participation in solving of design problems, taught to see engineering particulars of marine plants and to know them, to know not only physics but also engineering, to thoroughly understand drawings and schemes related to a nuclear power plant and know its equipment, as he believed that a combination of calculation, experimental and design work yields important results. He himself carefully studied drawings, especially when problems occurred in structural concepts. Attention to details was an important feature of his character. He instructed them not to disregard minor items, which could conceal an unexpected result.

Knowledge and potentialities to understand drawings and schemes helped staff members find a common language with workers of design offices and production plants: it was sufficient to say that they came on the instructions of Alexandrov, and all problems were solved without delay.

Alexandrov entrusted everybody with work according to his abilities, he knew how to interest an employee and induce him to creative work. He possessed an unusual insight and instantly determined abilities and potentialities of man, what could be expected of him at this or that place. He was rarely mistaken."

Yevgeny Burlakov, Cand. Sc. (Tech.) and Alexander Kalugin, Cand. Sc. (Phys. & Math.) (1938-2010):

"As a research supervisor of commercial reactors Alexandrov took part in matters of their design, start-up and operation.

Once at Industrial Complex No. 817 (today Mayak Production Association, Ozersk, Chelyabinsk Region.-- Ed.), the state of an in-core structure was under discussion (it was in the mid-1960s, i.e. fifteen years after the start-up of graphite-uranium reactors of the AB type). The matter was that the assembly unit in question was in an absolutely inaccessible place; therefore, it was impos-

Academician Anatoly Alexandrov (President of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1975-1986), corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Vasily Yemelyanov, academicians Mstislav Keldysh (President of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1961-1975) and Alexander Nesmeyanov (President of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1951-1961).

стр. 63

sible to find out how it worked after such a long period of operation. Suddenly Alexandrov, so far silent, said: 'There must be a tube at minus 15.5 m mark through which one can get inside.' The plant workers loudly objected saying that they had participated in the reactor installation and no tube was there. But when the drawings were brought in, the tube turned out to be in the place indicated by Alexandrov. That is how an authority of the research supervisor was created."

Amir Amayev, Dr. Sc. (Tech.):

"Alexandrov's modesty is a matter of common knowledge, but 1 would like to give several examples. An anti-corrosion plating layer made of austenitic stainless steel is applied to protect the internal surface of reactor of vessels of nuclear steam-generating plants. This operation is rather labor-consuming, complex and difficult. In 1962, three academicians Anatoly Alexandrov, Boris Paton and Nikolai Dollezhal submitted a proposal for creation of a reactor frame in a stamping-and-welded version, i.e. by applying a plating layer directly in a metallurgical cycle of making a reactor frame.

After the experimental works were completed at the Paton Institute of Electric Welding (today a part of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.--Ed.) and at the production plant in Mariupol, a group of leading specialists came from Boris Paton in Kiev to present the results. After the discussion was over, head of the department of the Institute of Electric Welding asked Alexandrov to sign filled-in forms of applications for an invention, in which he was mentioned as one of the authors of this invention. However, Alexandrov refused to sign it in a very tactful way and asked me to stay after the guests left. He told me what probably he did not want to say in the guests' presence: 'Amir, due to my position, I am obliged to take care of improvement of works and introduction of the latest achievements into practice. Let others to draw up an application for the invention, it is their right, without me.'

I remember this event of Alexandrov's unwillingness to be a coauthor and always tell about it to many workers of other institutions, where, as a rule, are no inventions and articles without authorship of their heads."


Academician Igor Spassky:

"When developing a deep-water submarine Komsomo-lets we could not long choose a circulation track design. The sharply increased submergence depth caused our concern regarding a single-circuit design of this track, and therefore we developed an alternative double-circuit version. Certainly, it entailed overall sophistication of this assembly, increase in weight and a partial loss of efficiency, but the system survivability essentially increased and made it possible to use the equipment of commercially produced steam-generating and steam-turbine plants.

When choosing alternatives the submariners divided in two. On Alexandrov's next visit to Rubin (Central Design Bureau of Marine Engineering in St. Petersburg.--Ed.) we decided to use him as an arbitrator. After our report he sat long looking into space and then said: 'I think that in this case a double-circuit version should be preferred.' This was said politely, without pressure and quite clearly. We followed his advice!"

Academician Fyodor Mitenkov:

"The sharp sense of the new was typical of Alexandrov. He could see significance of aftereffects of a new proposal at the earliest stage of its solution, and it became the focus of a discussion with the authors, he put questions, made comments and expressed doubts, sometimes deliberately aggravating them, but not insisting on them.

Thus, one day for successful solution of a job at the Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building in Nizhni Novgorod there appeared an idea to create a sealed asynchronous turbogenerator fit for standard parameters of a primary reactor coolant.

The preliminary information analysis proved that attempts to create unsealed asynchronous turbogenerators of a small capacity had taken place as early as the 1930s, but did not become widespread. The initial stage of the technical design revealed that not only the design proper of a sealed asynchronous turbogenerator but also a specific control system were new in creating of such system.

стр. 64

...My knowledge of Alexandrov's wide range of interests and erudition prompted me to expect that he, for some reason, would either reject our proposal or find a way to support it, which would enable the said design bureau to expand works ...

Alexandrov heard me out, looked through our drawings and said: 'It is interesting,' got in touch with Academician Igor Glebov, briefed him on our proposal and listened to his reaction. Then he said: 'Glebov said that this problem had been studied profoundly 30-35 years or so ago but nothing good came of it.' And after some time he added: 'Let's take a look more closely.' The subsequent works, including theoretical and design works, and also construction of representative stands, manufacture of a test sample of a sealed asynchronous turbogenerator, conducting of experiments and tests, proved its operational capacity and project efficiency."


Rear-Admiral Alexander Usyskin (1908-1999):

"This man harmoniously combines a wide range of interests as a physicist, an inventiveness of a designer and efficiency of a technologist. And the best example in point is creation of a nuclear fleet when a new type of science organizer came out in full: a leading theorist, an engineer and a research supervisor of a public scale. With a direct participation of Alexandrov an atomic marine power plant was designed and constructed for the atomic icebreaker Lenin.

But the development of atomic power-engineering was not always smooth. Alarming telegrams with requests for help to solve a particular problem reached Alexandrov, and he made an urgent visit to the problem area. In a few hours in a marine engineer's cabin, sometimes directly at a defective mechanism, with a drawing on his knees, the academician tried to find a fault cause together with manufacturers and seamen. The seamen's words addressed to him 'our naval academician' evoked his kind smile...

He cannot be called an armchair scientist, who was engaged only in a narrow range of problems. He was aware that nothing planned by him and others could be done by itself, therefore he willingly made frequent business trips to production plants, institutes and design bureaus in Central Asia, Siberia, Vladivostok, Sakhalin, Kamchatka and Magadan... His daily routine was not fixed. Sometimes you could wait for him an hour or so, but once in his study and after inquiring about available time, the answer would be: 'As much as required...'

Alexandrov belongs to a class of scientists who possess an enviable ability to set forth a scientific idea or a scientific-technological content of any problem not only soundly but also plainly and explicitly. He hates odd pseudo-scientific terms and prefers a live human language. If you show impulsiveness in a dispute, he would calmly say: 'Do not generate' or 'Let's not break glasses.'

Alexandrov could also be annoyed. Frequently that was caused by a request to buy some equipment abroad. In that case you could hear such dialog:

-- Is there no national prototype?

-- Not with such characteristics,--the requester defends himself.

-- Do not know how to make or do not want to?--the president specifies.

-- They want but...

-- Don't get accustomed to buy,--Alexandrov assumes the offensive.--We are able to make it by ourselves. It is better to make! Keep it in mind. Better!"

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Vice-Admiral Mikhail Budayev, Dr. Sc. (Tech.) (1926-1996):

"New technology, especially radically new technology, always comes with difficulty and sometimes, to our great regret, takes away human lives. The marine nuclear power-engineering constitutes no exception in this context. In July of 1961, a dreadful accident took place at a power plant of the submarine K-19, the first atomic submarine equipped with ballistic missiles. The situation was tight, extraordinary and required new and yet unknown decisions. The operating personnel heaved a sigh of relief when Alexandrov arrived and, with his habitual calmness, good sense and benevolence, worked out measures to ensure safety and eliminate the accident consequences.

Once more 1 was convinced that Alexandrov was not only an outstanding scientist, but also an expert engineer. The submarine K-19 representing a rather serious hazard in a certain situation was moored in a small bay at a distance from the main naval base of submarines. Late at night I and a group of specialists inspected once again the submarine state. Aware of Alexandrov's anxiety, I decided to inform him of the inspection results if he was not asleep. He was not. He heard me out and put some questions including those regarding the mode of operation of one of the pumps. It was just it, I failed to inspect. Burning with shame (of all things, the flagship engineer!) I returned by a motorboat to the submarine in a jiffy to inspect that damned pump and at the same time all the rest...

Seamen are sharp-tongued, inclined to jokes and irony. They used them in relation to different people including top officials and chiefs. But nowhere and never anybody could afford a joke concerning Alexandrov. On the contrary, citation of his observations, his apt words and advices was accompanied only with admiration...

As Alexandrov hated any emotional words and especially praises to him, he could damp their ardor by one phrase. One day after a talk with seamen we decided to present Alexandrov with a mock-up submarine made by a seaman. During this 'ceremony' one of our speechmakers (called by us a silver-tongued man) devoted a greater part of his speech to glorification of Alexandrov... The latter made a wry face and said somewhat bluntly:' I am paid for that.' This remark had a sobering effect. He taught a lesson of modesty and temperance in statements."


Vyacheslav Strelkov, Dr. Sc. (Phys. & Math.):

"Though hot plasma physics and thermonuclear research were never in the sphere of Alexandrov's personal scientific interests, he nevertheless was active in promotion of experimental works in this field...

It was most pronounced in case of tokamaks early in the 1970s, in a period of construction and start-up of the T-10 plant. In those years Alexandrov's work style was characterized by the assertion 'lively business will open the way for itself'.

It was useless to write any notes addressed to him or leave prepared letters to be signed by him at his secretariat. These documents could remain forever among a pile of papers on his desk. But if you managed to be received by him, the situation changed sharply. In that case Alexandrov went deep into the matter, attentively read the papers found by his secretary on his desk, looked through drawings and discussed solutions. And woe be unto you if you failed to promptly answer simple questions. For example, when Alexandrov asked me about the weight of a beam of the T-10 magnetic circuit, he expressed obvious dissatisfaction with my answer 'It is planned to install a 50-ton crane in the room, and it will be enough.' He estimated the weight proceeding from the magnetic circuit sizes and only after that agreed with me.

Having discussed in detail the problem and made particular decisions for himself, Alexandrov started reading and formulating letters to ministries, production plants, etc. As a rule, all documents were typed at once, signed and sent. Such discussions lasted by far longer than had been planned, but time was not lost in vain, and the final effect was always positive.

When designing the T-10 plant Alexandrov's opinion and authority in selecting a power source type of the plant electromagnetic system played a decisive role. He took a strong stand in favor of the then nonstandard direct power-line supply, and his application to the power-generating company Mosenergo resulted in authorization for pulse power consumption up to 230 MVA during seven seconds, while 200 megawatt power corresponded to power consumption of a district center with a 50-70 thousand population, and such pulse power consumption could cause great difficulties in the Moscow electric system. In any case, when foreign specialists learned about the adopted decision, they anxiously inquired would not electric light in the Kremlin blink. The T-10 plant start-up and the first plasma produced by it in the mid-1975 were accomplished right in the scheduled time and a month before the start-up of the similar American PLT plant in Princeton."

Nikolai Chernoplekov, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1930-2008):

"It is hard to tell when studies of solid state physics started at the Kurchatov Institute, but it is obvious that they took place well before they "naturalized" officially in the form of the Department of Solid State Physics (DSSP) and later on of other specialized subdivisions. The institute already had perfect traditions of solid state studies. Naturally, they were introduced by the institute founder Kurchatov and his associates Alexandrov and Kikoin. Even before the war they accomplished fundamental studies in different fields of solid state physics,

стр. 66

which received deserved recognition of scientific community and made a substantial contribution to world science...

I find it difficult to explain the reason of this pleasing fact for the staff members of the department that Alexan-drov showed a sincere interest in and concern for it from the very beginning of its activity, which he kept to the end of his life. As a matter of fact, with regard to the said department he was chief producer, who never appears on the stage during a performance, but without whom no proper performance can take place. Despite his extreme lack of time, he often invited me alone or together with my colleagues to discuss the life of the department, but he requested to start our discussion with information on scientific and technical results, received in the main lines of activity, on new ideas and proposals. When any unique experiment was under way or a new pilot plant was put into operation, extending research potential, Alexandrov came and studied the situation on the spot. The authors received a lot of useful advice and comments and, if necessary, concrete help including the best achievements of national science and technology, which he was usually well acquainted with, and, attracting top authorities up to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers to realization of such help (as a rule, inevitable)...

His relations with me and a number of department staff members as well as with many others at the institute were not especially formal. He visited our department purposely in the evening, though not frequently but regularly, once or twice a year. I liked such meetings, they were short but with no interruptions for numerous telephone calls or painful pressure of visitors in the reception room, which happened when speaking with him in his study. In most cases we talked to the point, without diplomacy, about research results and perspectives, the personnel and its professional advancement. Alexandrov usually displayed rather in-depth awareness of the situation at the department. He attached great importance to building of proper relations between staff members and especially between related organizations, and on the basis of examples showed how difficult it was to form confiding business relations and how easy to destroy them, even due to slight incorrectness. They were a sort of mini-lessons, brightly illustrated by numerous worldly examples and always with humor Alexandrov style...

Such evening visits by Alexandrov were not a privilege of only our department. He also visited other departments of the institute in quiet evening hours, the time without endless telephone calls and insistent visitors. Such visits were of vital importance for everybody as they built a kind and creative atmosphere for work at the Kurchatov Institute...

As Alexandrov attached great importance to harmonization of the intra-institute relations, especially between representatives of fundamental and applied lines of research, and also to benevolent alteration of generations, which became an urgent problem for the institute in the 1960s, Alexandrov, rather unexpectedly for me, accepted a proposal to participate in informal meetings between the then young representatives of reactor trends (N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi, V. Sidorenko, Ye. Ryazantsev) and all-aged representatives of physicists (I. Gurevich, Yu. Kagan, V. Galitsky and the author of this paper). The meetings were held at the Kurchatov house, where the atmosphere forced the participants to leave all pettiness outside the house and reminded of responsibility for preservation and development of Kurchatov's heritage, i.e. the extensive and well-founded scientific search definitely on the world level and the same scientific-technical works brought to the completion. The

стр. 67

number of participants expanded gradually due to B. Ka-domtsev, N. Khlopkin and other leading staff members concerned with the Kurchatov Institute destiny. As a rule, they discussed the most important and burning problems of the institute and its connections with the outside world. The discussions were open, sometimes heated but always within the 'parliamentary' framework. Such meetings did not adopt resolutions but worked out mutual understanding, and Alexandrov received an additional material for thought and decision-making...

When considering Alexandrov's personality, people are often interested in his relations with the authorities. Some people say that he was respected and even treated with affection by them. Of course, this benevolent and modest man, well-read and witty, intelligent and, when necessary, resolute, or, more simply, this well-built and bald handsome man undoubtedly inspired respect among all people, who are guided by normal principles in human contacts. Alexandrov did not like any praise addressed to him and was unkind to its authors. As I know, except of getting reserved tickets in case of urgent business trips, he never used his deputy and party privileges. But did he like the power? I would not like to repeat the commonplace assertions that the power corrupts, that it is cynical, etc. As I knew, Alexandrov was fond of his people, his science and his institute and did everything he could to make science serve the people and make their life more protected and human. He could not allow himself to be indifferent to the problems of his country. Therefore, he had normal human and working relations with those representatives of the power, who were near to him owing to their convictions and by their actions promoted positive changes in the country in the sense common to all mankind. As to others, he tried, when possible, not to deal with them."


Academician Zhores Alferov, RAS Vice-President, Nobel Prize Winner of 2000:

"In the period of his presidency (1975-1986), I used to meet Alexandrov in Moscow and during his frequent visits to Leningrad. I must say that we had a unique president of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He used in full measure his immense authority of the scientist, engineer and statesman for the development of fundamental and applied studies in our country. I would like to emphasize his two main qualities: first, when discussing any problem you could immediately feel his interest in business, I would say, just in business, its scientific and national importance, without any short-term interest; secondly, Alexandrov valued in people, first of all, their selfless serving to science and the country, he could find and support decent, honest and talented people.

During his presidency Alexandrov used to say that he performed the function of 'matchmaker', trying to acquaint scientists with new findings, this or that industrial organization, where such findings could be used in the most efficient way. His recommendations were often faultless, and you had only get surprised at his memory, patience and rare insight."

Academician Gury Marchuk, Chairman of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1975-1980), President of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1986-1991):

"When Mikhail Lavrentyev, the founder of the Siberian Branch and its first chairman, retired, the scientific community elected me new chairman of the USSR AS Siberian Branch. It was an honorary but very hard work, which sometimes called for sacrifice. This time I myself was a victim. When Alexandrov phoned me, he inquired whether his visit to Akademgorodok would be not too disturbing for our daily routine. We appreciated this delicacy of the president. Of course, we were happy to meet Alexandrov at any time.

He came in the evening and already at the airport said that he would like first of all to visit the Institute of Semiconductor Physics... From the airport we went home and discussed all our main problems till three o'clock in the morning, including such events as founding of the Siberian Branch. Then we saw Alexandrov off to the guest house. We were surprised to see him at the Institute of Semiconductor Physics at nine o'clock in the morning. Later on he visited the Institute of Nuclear Physics, the Institute of Thermal Physics and the Computer Center as he was eager to see as much as possible and understand tendencies of the science development in our region.

стр. 68

On the third day of his visit Alexandrov decided to fly with us to the Tomsk Scientific Center, which was in the process of making but had already become known... After that he visited the Samotlor deposit, the center of oil-extracting industry, and the main town of Nizhnevartovsk. We went there by helicopter and then by car visited a dozen of industrial centers and had meetings with citizens. Alexandrov was inimitable. He literally shined from bright impressions, from acknowledgement of the necessity of science, its importance not only for Siberia but also for the whole of our country. Then followed Surgut and Tyumen. Alexandrov was highly excited with his trip and perspectives of development of Western Siberia. He talked about this all the time during his trip. From Tyumen he left for Moscow, where that evening he had to be at a reception at the Embassy of Finland in honor of the anniversary of the country's formation.

Eye-witnesses from the foreign department of the USSR Academy of Sciences stated that Alexandrov went from the airport directly to the Embassy of Finland. The ambassador met him, invited to the table for guests of honor and gave him the floor. Alexandrov started his speech from Siberian impressions and especially from Western Siberia. He spoke almost 30 minutes, describing to the guests many new wonderful events from the life of this territory and its future. One of the staff members of the foreign department of the USSR AS told him quietly that he should say something about Finland too, but Alexandrov kept talking about the beautiful and mighty Siberia. Then the man reminded him again in a whisper of Finland. Alexandrov ended his speech with a toast: 'I raise my glass to friendly Finland and its industrious people!' Such was our president! Carried away with a great idea, he lived in it, and at that time there were no other problems more significant for him."

Academician Yuri Osipov, RAS President (since 1991):

'Alexandrov's ability to foresee the importance of a particular work is well known. Early in 1976 in his opening speech at an annual session of the General Meeting of the Academy of Sciences, he qualified Alferov's work on heterojunctions in semiconductors as fundamental and stressed that it was of revolutionizing importance for semiconductor electronics. He also stated regretfully that the said work found practical use abroad and not in our country, and he suggested measures to correct the situation.

Being aware of paramount importance of computer engineering for the development of science, technology and other spheres and the necessity of overcoming backwardness in this field, he ardently supported appropriate studies and developments at the Academy of Sciences and branches of industry. The departments of information science, computer engineering and automation were established with his active participation at the Academy of Sciences. During his presidency, a number of scientific institutions were set up at the Academy of Sciences for development of information technologies, computer engineering, element base of computer equipment and telecommunications. Alexandrov was constantly troubled about expansion of computer equipment production, improvement of its level and efficient use in scientific studies.

As the president of the Academy of Sciences he carefully treated the traditions of the academic community and existing management structures. But life called for introduction of changes into the profile of some departments of the academy and revision of some thoughtless decisions of the early 1960s on transfer of a number of institutes to industry. Guided by business interests, Alexandrov supported and insistently carried out such changes... The status of regional scientific centers of the USSR Academy of Sciences was raised due to his support...

Alexandrov's activities clearly demonstrate a public approach, concern for state interests and human welfare... In his public addresses, in particular at sessions of General Meetings of the Academy, he stressed many times that some managers agreed too readily to purchase technological processes and equipment abroad and made inadequate efforts to master own research developments. He mentioned another aspect of this problem: when developing science and technology we should not rely on any assistance from outside. While admitting usefulness of international relations for science development, he stated that 'we managed to solve the most complicated scientific and technical problems, namely, atomic and outer space problems, independently and in any case did that no worse than in the West.'"

According to the materials of the Collection "A.P. Alexandrov. Documents and Recollections" (editor-in-chief Academician Nikolai Khlopkin.--M.: IzdAT Publishers, 2003

Illustrations from the archives of the laboratory of scientific and technical photography of the Kurchatov Institute and Alexandrov's family archives

Prepared by Marina KHALIZEVA



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