Libmonster ID: BY-2422
Author(s) of the publication: Yu. V. Solovyov

Yu. V. Solovyov

Candidate of Economic Sciences

Peoples ' Friendship University of Russia

Keywords: technology transfer, APEC, Asia-Pacific region, innovation

The United States and Japan are recognized technology leaders in the world and, in particular, in the Asia-Pacific region (APR). However, in recent years, the world market of high technologies has been entered by countries that previously mainly imported technologies.

The economic and technological development of the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, the emergence in the 1960s of new industrial countries (NIS) of the "first wave", and then the second-fourth, and the emergence of China in the world market indicate the formation of a regional development model that includes an intraregional division of labor in accordance with geographical location, natural resources, and the level of economic development and technological development.

page 42

Table 1

Domestic R & D expenditures (calculated at purchasing power parity of national currencies, $ mln)

A country

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

China

213 460,1

247 808,3

292 062,9

333 521,6

368731,6

Korea

52172,8

58 379,7

64 862,5

68 051,5

72 266,8

Russia

33 093,5

35 192,1

37911,5

36614,1

39 863,0

Singapore

7218,1

8 359,7

8176,9

8 686,4

 

USA

410 093,0

428 745,0

436 078,0

456 977,0

 

Taiwan

25 060,8

27 422,7

29 055,1

30 751,3

32 429,6

Japan

140 607,4

148 389,2

152 325,6

162 347,2

166 861,3



Источник: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators: Volume 2015/2. P. 20.

The development and economic growth of any country depends on a number of factors that contribute not only to increasing real production volumes, but also to improving the quality of growth, as well as the level of efficiency. In the process of economic development, the list of these factors and the assessment of their importance change. However, for most of the world's leading countries, the development of innovation, high technologies, and the knowledge economy comes first. First - wave NIS-primarily the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong-have significantly increased investment and government spending on research and development (R & D)in recent years (Table 1).

To assess the scientific and innovation potential, the Economist Intelligence Unit has been calculating the global innovation index annually since 2007 (see Table 2). Thus, in 2014, the study covered 143 countries, accounting for 99.4% of global GDP. Russia, which was ranked 62nd in 2013, rose to 49th in 2014.

The process of technology transfer has its own regional characteristics. Let's look at some of them that are most typical for a number of countries of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).

The Singapore model. In the late 1970s, the Government of Singapore chose the development of knowledge-based industries as a national policy priority. It was decided to create a center for information and knowledge-intensive industries. So, in 1981, on the basis of the University of Singapore, the first research and production park was created, which became the leading inno-

Table 2

Global Innovation Index (APEC countries), 2014

Rating

A country

Index

6

United States of America

60,00

7

Singapore

59,24

10

Hong Kong

56,82

12

Canada

56,13

16

Korea

55,27

17

Australia

55,01

18

New Zealand

54,52

21

Japan

52,41

29

China

46,57

33

Malaysia

45,60

46

Chile

40,64

48

Thailand

39,28

49

Russia

39,14

71

Vietnam

34,89

73

Peru

34,73

87

Indonesia

31,81

100

Philippines

29,87



Источник: The Global Innovation Index 2014: The Local Dynamics of Innovation - www.globalinnovationindex.org

page 43

the country's innovation center and the largest industrial technology development center.

Subsequently, the Government of Singapore chose biotechnology, medicine, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, and zoology as priority areas of research and development. By the mid-1990s, 10 agricultural parks had been established.

Science and industrial parks have made a significant contribution to the implementation of Singapore's national development programs. For example, the Singapore Science Park, established in 1980, became the foundation for the formation of high-tech companies in the country and the center of a number of national programs and R & D aimed at developing such industries as biomedicine, information technology, software development, telecommunications, electronics, food technology, chemistry and materials.1

In 2000, the Singapore Government initiated a new technopark project, One-North Science Habitat, and two technopark structures were formed: Biopolis-specializing in biotechnology, and Fusionopolis-focused on information and basic sciences2. Companies that participate in the development of such parks are provided with benefits: a halving of the profit tax when investing in research activities; a preferential tax on the construction and operation of industrial structures on the territory of the research and production park, etc.

The Government of Singapore plans to increase the number of technology parks with a focus on creating and developing modern technologies for the production of agricultural products and their export to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as new developments and technologies - in the long-term plans 3.

Hong Kong. The formation of Hong Kong's innovation system has specific features, which are based on historical features (the separation from China in the XIX century and the transformation into a colony of Great Britain) and spatial and geographical ones, due to the interests of a number of countries (China, East and South-East Asia, Europe and the United States).

The country's economic integration with the southern provinces of China (after Hong Kong came under Chinese jurisdiction in 1997) had a significant impact on the development of the national innovation system, which contributed to the transfer of a number of industries to Hong Kong. With the state support of the science and technology business, the Hong Kong Science and Technology Park (HTP) with its research centers and incubators proved to be effective. For example, in 1999, the Hong Kong Government established a special fund of HK$5 billion ($645 million)to support applied research projects4. And in 2001, the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation was established, which became the core institute of the national innovation system.

As noted by the director of NTPG E. Tan, the principle of "developed in Hong Kong - made in China" was successfully implemented by many companies-residents of the park. In particular, the business of Sensixa, a derivative of King's College London, is built according to this scheme. Sensixa develops and manufactures contact sensors that can track the degree of physical activity and the state of the patient's body. The R & D center in Hong Kong allowed the company to bring its product to the Southeast Asian market in a short time due to the low cost of production in mainland China. In 2010, the company's behind-the-ear Bluetooth sensor was recognized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group consortium as the best development of the year in the world5.

Japanese model. Since 1982, new technopolis cities have been formed to focus on innovative areas of scientific and applied research and high-tech industrial production. The Technopolis project has become a national strategy aimed at developing the country's economy and based on the idea of interaction of business structures (production) with universities and institutes (education and science), with the state and local authorities (regulatory link).

Initially, 19 zones were chosen for the creation of technopolises, evenly distributed on four islands (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu). The formation of technopolises took place taking into account a number of requirements. Each technopolis should be located near an airport or railway junction, which would allow the participant of the innovation process to get to Tokyo, Nagoya or Osaka within a day and return back. The technopolis also needed to have large scientific and industrial complexes, public or private universities, research institutes or laboratories, and be located in comfortable areas equipped with cultural and recreational infrastructure.

Currently, there are more than 20 national technopolises in Japan - they have a significant impact on the development of the country's economy (see the map).

The oldest and most famous Japanese technopolis is Tsukuba, the so-called "city of brains". It is located in Kanto Prefecture and has a well-developed transport infrastructure connecting the city with all regions of the country. In Tsukuba

page 44

Map. Technopolises of Japan.

Compiled by the author based on: Tatsuno Sh. Strategy-Technopolises, Moscow, Progress Publ., 1989.

there are about 40 of the 98 leading state research laboratories in Japan. This small city is one of the largest scientific centers in the world: its population is just over 200,000 people, 19,000 of them are scientists engaged in research work, which is 40% of the total number of scientists in the country6.

Other major technopolises in Japan include those in Hamamatsu, Nagaoka, Toyama, Hiroshima, and Yamagata. Each of them bears a certain share of responsibility for research work focused on the needs of its region (prefecture) and relies on its strategically important industries. In accordance with this, the state provides enterprises engaged in research and development activities with a number of benefits: an annual tax credit of 10% of current and capital expenditures on research and development, as well as an additional tax credit of 5% of the increase in research and development expenditures compared to their average volume in the previous three years.

Both the Japanese government and business structures attach great importance to the development of technopolises, rightly considering them a key source of technology that determines not only the country's economic growth, but also its future. 7

Chinese model. The formation of integration of the state, science, education, and business structures in China was preceded by the reforms of the 1970s and 1980s and the national development programs adopted on their basis. In March 1986, the state program for the development of science and high technologies - "Program 863" - was approved, combining such priority industries as microelectronics, computer science, space, fiber-optic technologies, genetic engineering and biotechnology, energy-saving technologies and medicine. The program included both basic and applied research, the development of new technologies based on the development of traditional industries.

The program was implemented quite efficiently. Thus, over 1000 scientific and technical achievements were registered in its first 10 years, 560 of them received world recognition, 266 were patented abroad.8

In 1988, a decree of the State Council of China established the first technopark-the Beijing Experimental Zone for the Development of High Technologies (later it was renamed to

page 45

Zhongguancun Science and Technology Zone, or Z-park9.

Z-park was not accidentally placed in the north-west of Beijing. It is here that more than 100 scientific and technical institutes and laboratories are located, as well as the largest universities in China-Peking University and Tsinghua University. It was they who became the main elements of the technopark: universities provided scientific developments, companies that promoted them, and qualified personnel for high-tech businesses.

The integration component in China has a territorial organization, which is based on the division into zones of development of new and high technologies (ZRNVT) formed in the mid-80s of the XX century, which are scientific and technological parks. Currently, there are 120 such zones in China, including 53 of them for strategic purposes.10

Among the Chinese air defense systems, it is possible to distinguish zones located in the central regions (Beijing, Shenyang), as well as in the coastal regions (Shanghai, Hainan). In one of the central districts is located the second largest and most important technopark in China - "Nanhu", which received state status in 1991. Shenyang, on the territory of which this technopark is located, has 12 universities, 30 research institutes, 210 on the territory of the Republic of China.-

Table 3

South Korean technology parks

Name

Location

Main directions

Taedok

Near Daejeon city

Creation of high-tech products, new technologies and materials. Basic research is being conducted (including for Samsung and LG enterprises).

Ulsan

Ulsan city

Research and development for the machine-building industry. Developments in the chemical industry and high technologies for shipbuilding. Automotive Parts Innovation Center (APIC). Hybrid electric vehicles.

Gangwon-do

Gangwon City

Priority areas for small innovative companies in the field of medical instrumentation, high technologies and biomedicine.

Chungbuk

Cheonju City

Development of biotechnology, ICT, media and multimedia, telecommunications, biological sciences, medical sciences and technologies

Gwangju

Gwangju City

Chemistry / Chemical Technologies, Electronics and Microelectronics

Gyeonggi

G. Anson

Industrial technologies, biotechnologies, electronics and microelectronics, ICT, media and multimedia, telecommunications

KICOX Industrial Innovation Center (Korea International Complex Gr)

Guro city

Aeronautics, aerospace, astronautics, electronics and microelectronics, technological systems, automation, robotics, layout, materials, new materials, mechanics, industrial service, industrial design, engineering


Daedeok Innovation City
(Daedeok/Daejeori)

Daejeon City

Biotechnologies, electronics and microelectronics, ICT, media and multimedia, telecommunications, technological systems, automation, robotics, layout, nanotechnology, optics, optoelectronics, lasers

Jeju

Jeju City

Biotechnologies, computers and external equipment, culture industry, technologies in service, energy and renewable energy sources, environment, ICT, media and multimedia, telecommunications

GSBC-Small Business Center

Suwon City

Biotechnologies, electronics and microelectronics, environment, ICT, media and multimedia, telecommunications



Compiled by the author.

page 46

research laboratories, 220 enterprises of new and high technologies operate here (30 of them with the participation of foreign capital). During the existence of the zone, about 600 new types of high-tech products have been developed and put into production.11

According to the national program adopted in 2006, government agencies are required to allocate a certain share of their spending on the products of innovative Chinese companies only (regardless of the profitability of such purchases). Under the new rules, government agencies can only purchase foreign products if there is no alternative in China.12

Model of South Korea. South Korea's technology parks are the result of cooperation between the state, scientific and production facilities aimed at implementing promising production and development projects. State-supported technopark structures provide specialists, conduct research and development in cooperation with local enterprises (both private and public).

When forming technoparks, the specifics of the region in which they are created (natural and climatic, historical, technological, infrastructural, etc.) are taken into account. Table 3 shows the main technology parks in South Korea and their areas of activity.

Taiwan model. Taiwan is home to the Hsinchu Science Park, which is not only the center of Taiwan's semiconductor and computer industry, but also one of the largest technology parks in the Asian region. When it was created in 1980 on the basis of the largest national universities (Chiatung and Tsinghua), the government was guided by both Japanese and American experience in organizing technopark structures.

The main activity of Hsinchu was the development of new high-tech industries, including the development and launch of computers, semiconductor devices, developments in the field of biotechnology and fine chemistry, optoelectronics.

On the territory of "Hsinchu" there are such organizations as the Research Institute of Industrial Technology, the Research Institute of Electronics, the center for the development of biotechnologies, the united corporation for the development of microelectronics, the largest enterprise for the production of semiconductors. The technopark unites more than 380 companies, including such large corporations as Philips, TSMC, United Microelectronics Corporation, Holtek, AU Optronics, Epistar13. As a result, the city has the highest income level in Taiwan 14.

In total, there are three technoparks in Taiwan, named after their location: the already mentioned "Hsinchu", South and Central.

* * *

APEC economies are the most dynamically developing economies in the world with a large domestic market for goods and services, and opportunities for significant economic and technological development based on the implementation of regional technical and technological integration programs.

The region is experiencing rapid economic growth due to increasing production capacity, improving the qualification level of personnel, along with significant investment in the real sector of the economy, and the widespread introduction of advanced technologies.15 This allows for more efficient use of production capacities and natural resources.

Undoubtedly, the development of the global economy in the coming years will be determined by the development of large regional economic zones, including APEC.


1 http://www.sciencepark.com.sg

2 Analysis and evaluation of the status and trends of development of the legislation on innovation and science abroad // Information and analytical materials of the State Duma - http://iam.duma.gov.ru/node/ 10/4960/20221

3 Report of the Economic Strategies Committee: Ministry of Trade and Industry Singapore - www.mti.gov.sg/ResearchRoom/Pages/Report-of-the-Economic-Strategies-Committee.aspx

4 Interview with General Director of the Hong Kong Science and Technology Park Anthony Tan / / Skolkovo - http://sk.ru/news/b/press/archive/2012/04/16/intervyu-s-generalnym-direktorom-nauchnogo-i - tehnologicheskogo-parka-gonkonga-entoni-tanom. aspx

5 Ibid.

6 Technopolis Tsukuba / / Voice of Russia - http://rus.ruvr.ru/2011/11/15/60440109/

7 Ibid.

8 Experience of operating technology parks in China: Analytical information - http://tpark.ict.nsc.ru/analitic/chinatpark.htm

9 Zhongguancun Science Park - http://en.zhongguancun.gov.cn/2013 - 12/04/content_17148863.htm

10 Ibid.

11 Experience of operating technology parks in China...

12 Innovatsionnaya politika: mezhdunarodnyy opyt [Innovation Policy: international Experience]. 2011, N 1 - www.chelt.ru/2011/1 - 11/innovaci_kitai_l-l1.html

13 Companies in the Park // Hsinchu Science Park Bureau, Ministry of Science and Technology - www.sipa.gov.tw/english/home.jsp?serno=201003210015&mserno=201003210003&menudat a=EnglishMenu&contlink=ap/introduction_2_5.jsp&level3=Y&serno3=201003210024

14 Hsinchu Science Park Bureau, Ministry of Science and Technology - www.sipa.gov.tw/english/

15 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation - http://publications.apec.org


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